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13 Maintaining a MySQL installation

13.1 Using myisamchk for table maintenance and crash recovery

To check/repair MyISAM tables (.MYI and .MYD) you should use the myisamchk utility. To check/repair ISAM tables (.ISM and .ISD) you should use the isamchk utility. See section 9.4 MySQL table types.

In the following text we will talk about myisamchk but everything also applies to the old isamchk.

You can use the myisamchk utility to get information about your database tables, check and repair them or optimize them. The following sections describe how to invoke myisamchk (including a description of its options), how to set up a table maintenance schedule, and how to use myisamchk to perform its various functions.

If you run mysqld with --skip-locking (which is the default on some systems, like Linux), you can't reliably use myisamchk to check a table when mysqld is using the same table. If you can be sure that no one is accessing the tables through mysqld while you run myisamchk, you only have to do mysqladmin flush-tables before you start checking the tables. If you can't guarantee the above, then you must take down mysqld while you check the tables. If you run myisamchk while mysqld is updating the tables, you may get a warning that a table is corrupt even if it isn't.

If you are not using --skip-locking, you can use myisamchk to check tables at any time. While you do this, all clients that try to update the table will wait until myisamchk is ready before continuing.

If you use myisamchk to repair or optimize tables, you MUST always ensure that the mysqld server is not using the table (this also applies if you are using --skip-locking). If you don't take down mysqld you should at least do a mysqladmin flush-tables before you run myisamchk.

You can in most cases also use the command OPTIMIZE TABLES to optimize and repair tables, but this is not as fast or reliable (in case of real fatal errors) as myisamchk. On the other hand, OPTIMIZE TABLE is easier to use and you don't have to worry about flushing tables. See section 7.9 OPTIMIZE TABLE syntax.

13.1.1 myisamchk invocation syntax

myisamchk is invoked like this:

shell> myisamchk [options] tbl_name

The options specify what you want myisamchk to do. They are described below. (You can also get a list of options by invoking myisamchk --help.) With no options, myisamchk simply checks your table. To get more information or to tell myisamchk to take corrective action, specify options as described below and in the following sections.

tbl_name is the database table you want to check. If you run myisamchk somewhere other than in the database directory, you must specify the path to the file, since myisamchk has no idea where your database is located. Actually, myisamchk doesn't care whether or not the files you are working on are located in a database directory; you can copy the files that correspond to a database table into another location and perform recovery operations on them there.

You can name several tables on the myisamchk command line if you wish. You can also specify a name as an index file name (with the `.MYI' suffix), which allows you to specify all tables in a directory by using the pattern `*.MYI'. For example, if you are in a database directory, you can check all the tables in the directory like this:

shell> myisamchk *.MYI

If you are not in the database directory, you can check all the tables there by specifying the path to the directory:

shell> myisamchk /path/to/database_dir/*.MYI

You can even check all tables in all databases by specifying a wildcard with the path to the MySQL data directory:

shell> myisamchk /path/to/datadir/*/*.MYI

myisamchk supports the following options:

-a, --analyze
Analyze the distribution of keys. This improves join performance by enabling the join optimizer to better choose in which order it should join the tables and which keys it should use.
-#, --debug=debug_options
Output debug log. The debug_options string often is 'd:t:o,filename'.
-d, --description
Prints some information about the table.
-e, --extend-check
Check the table VERY thoroughly. This is necessary only in extreme cases. Normally, myisamchk should find all errors even without this option.
-f, --force
Overwrite old temporary files. If you use -f when checking tables (running myisamchk without -r), myisamchk will automatically restart with -r on any table for which an error occurs during checking.
--help
Display a help message and exit.
-i, --information
Print informational statistics about the table that is checked.
-k #, --keys-used=#
Used with -r. Tell the ISAM table handler to update only the first # indexes. Higher-numbered indexes are deactivated. This can be used to get faster inserts! Deactivated indexes can be reactivated by using myisamchk -r.
-l, --no-symlinks
Do not follow symbolic links when repairing. Normally myisamchk repairs the table a symlink points at.
-q, --quick
Used with -r to get a faster repair. Normally, the original data file isn't touched; you can specify a second -q to force the original data file to be used.
-r, --recover
Recovery mode. Can fix almost anything except unique keys that aren't unique.
-o, --safe-recover
Recovery mode. Uses an old recovery method; this is slower than -r, but can handle a couple of cases that -r cannot handle.
-O var=option, --set-variable var=option
Set the value of a variable. The possible variables are listed below.
-s, --silent
Silent mode. Write output only when errors occur. You can use -s twice (-ss) to make myisamchk very silent.
-S, --sort-index
Sort the index tree blocks in high-low order. This will optimize seeks and will make table scanning by key faster.
-R index_num, --sort-records=index_num
Sorts records according to an index. This makes your data much more localized and may speed up ranged SELECT and ORDER BY operations on this index. (It may be VERY slow to do a sort the first time!) To find out a table's index numbers, use SHOW INDEX, which shows a table's indexes in the same order that myisamchk sees them. Indexes are numbered beginning with 1.
-u, --unpack
Unpack a table that was packed with myisampack.
-v, --verbose
Verbose mode. Print more information. This can be used with -d and -e. Use -v multiple times (-vv, -vvv) for more verbosity!
-V, --version
Print the myisamchk version and exit.
-w, --wait
Wait if the table is locked.

Possible variables for the --set-variable (-O) option are:

key_buffer_size       current value: 16776192
read_buffer_size      current value: 262136
write_buffer_size     current value: 262136
sort_buffer_size      current value: 2097144
sort_key_blocks       current value: 16
decode_bits           current value: 9

13.1.2 myisamchk memory usage

Memory allocation is important when you run myisamchk. myisamchk uses no more memory than you specify with the -O options. If you are going to use myisamchk on very large files, you should first decide how much memory you want it to use. The default is to use only about 3M to fix things. By using larger values, you can get myisamchk to operate faster. For example, if you have more than 32M RAM, you could use options such as these (in addition to any other options you might specify):

shell> myisamchk -O sort=16M -O key=16M -O read=1M -O write=1M ...

Using -O sort=16M should probably be enough for most cases.

Be aware that myisamchk uses temporary files in TMPDIR. If TMPDIR points to a memory file system, you may easily get out of memory errors. If this happens, set TMPDIR to point at some directory with more space and restart myisamchk

13.2 Setting up a table maintenance regimen

It is a good idea to perform table checks on a regular basis rather than waiting for problems to occur. For maintenance purposes, you can use myisamchk -s to check tables. The -s option causes myisamchk to run in silent mode, printing messages only when errors occur.

It's a good idea to check tables when the server starts up. For example, whenever the machine has done a reboot in the middle of an update, you usually need to check all the tables that could have been affected. (This is an ``expected crashed table''.) You could add a test to safe_mysqld that runs myisamchk to check all tables that have been modified during the last 24 hours if there is an old `.pid' (process ID) file left after a reboot. (The `.pid' file is created by mysqld when it starts up and removed when it terminates normally. The presence of a `.pid' file at system startup time indicates that mysqld terminated abnormally.)

An even better test would be to check any table whose last-modified time is more recent than that of the `.pid' file.

You should also check your tables regularly during normal system operation. At TcX, we run a cron job to check all our important tables once a week, using a line like this in a `crontab' file:

35 0 * * 0 /path/to/myisamchk -s /path/to/datadir/*/*.MYI

This prints out information about crashed tables so we can examine and repair them when needed.

As we haven't had any unexpectedly crashed tables (tables that become corrupted for reasons other than hardware trouble) for a couple of years now (this is really true), once a week is more than enough for us.

We recommend that to start with, you execute myisamchk -s each night on all tables that have been updated during the last 24 hours, until you come to trust MySQL as much as we do.

13.3 Getting information about a table

To get a description of a table or statistics about it, use the commands shown below. We explain some of the information in more detail later.

myisamchk -d tbl_name
Runs myisamchk in ``describe mode'' to produce a description of your table. If you start the MySQL server using the --skip-locking option, myisamchk may report an error for a table that is updated while it runs. However, since myisamchk doesn't change the table in describe mode, there isn't any risk of destroying data.
myisamchk -d -v tbl_name
To produce more information about what myisamchk is doing, add -v to tell it to run in verbose mode.
myisamchk -eis tbl_name
Shows only the most important information from a table. It is slow since it must read the whole table.
myisamchk -eiv tbl_name
This is like -eis, but tells you what is being done.

Example of myisamchk -d output:

MyISAM file:     company.MYI
Record format:       Fixed length
Data records:           1403698  Deleted blocks:         0
Recordlength:               226

table description:
Key Start Len Index   Type
1   2     8   unique  double
2   15    10  multip. text packed stripped
3   219   8   multip. double
4   63    10  multip. text packed stripped
5   167   2   multip. unsigned short
6   177   4   multip. unsigned long
7   155   4   multip. text
8   138   4   multip. unsigned long
9   177   4   multip. unsigned long
    193   1           text

Example of myisamchk -d -v output:

MyISAM file:         company
Record format:       Fixed length
File-version:        1
Creation time:       1999-10-30 12:12:51
Recover time:        1999-10-31 19:13:01
Status:              checked
Data records:           1403698  Deleted blocks:              0
Datafile parts:         1403698  Deleted data:                0
Datafilepointer (bytes):      3  Keyfile pointer (bytes):     3
Max datafile length: 3791650815  Max keyfile length: 4294967294
Recordlength:               226

table description:
Key Start Len Index   Type                  Rec/key     Root Blocksize
1   2     8   unique  double                      1 15845376      1024
2   15    10  multip. text packed stripped        2 25062400      1024
3   219   8   multip. double                     73 40907776      1024
4   63    10  multip. text packed stripped        5 48097280      1024
5   167   2   multip. unsigned short           4840 55200768      1024
6   177   4   multip. unsigned long            1346 65145856      1024
7   155   4   multip. text                     4995 75090944      1024
8   138   4   multip. unsigned long              87 85036032      1024
9   177   4   multip. unsigned long             178 96481280      1024
    193   1           text

Example of myisamchk -eis output:

Checking MyISAM file: company
Key:  1:  Keyblocks used:  97%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  4
Key:  2:  Keyblocks used:  98%  Packed:   50%  Max levels:  4
Key:  3:  Keyblocks used:  97%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  4
Key:  4:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:   60%  Max levels:  3
Key:  5:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  3
Key:  6:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  3
Key:  7:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  3
Key:  8:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  3
Key:  9:  Keyblocks used:  98%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  4
Total:    Keyblocks used:  98%  Packed:   17%

Records:          1403698    M.recordlength:     226   Packed:             0%
Recordspace used:     100%   Empty space:          0%  Blocks/Record:   1.00
Record blocks:    1403698    Delete blocks:        0
Recorddata:     317235748    Deleted data:         0
Lost space:             0    Linkdata:             0

User time 1626.51, System time 232.36
Maximum resident set size 0, Integral resident set size 0
Non physical pagefaults 0, Physical pagefaults 627, Swaps 0
Blocks in 0 out 0, Messages in 0 out 0, Signals 0
Voluntary context switches 639, Involuntary context switches 28966

Example of myisamchk -eiv output:

Checking MyISAM file: company
Data records: 1403698   Deleted blocks:       0
- check file-size
- check delete-chain
block_size 1024:
index  1:
index  2:
index  3:
index  4:
index  5:
index  6:
index  7:
index  8:
index  9:
No recordlinks
- check index reference
- check data record references index: 1
Key:  1:  Keyblocks used:  97%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  4
- check data record references index: 2
Key:  2:  Keyblocks used:  98%  Packed:   50%  Max levels:  4
- check data record references index: 3
Key:  3:  Keyblocks used:  97%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  4
- check data record references index: 4
Key:  4:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:   60%  Max levels:  3
- check data record references index: 5
Key:  5:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  3
- check data record references index: 6
Key:  6:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  3
- check data record references index: 7
Key:  7:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  3
- check data record references index: 8
Key:  8:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  3
- check data record references index: 9
Key:  9:  Keyblocks used:  98%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  4
Total:    Keyblocks used:   9%  Packed:   17%

- check records and index references
[LOTS OF ROW NUMBERS DELETED]

Records:          1403698    M.recordlength:     226   Packed:             0%
Recordspace used:     100%   Empty space:          0%  Blocks/Record:   1.00
Record blocks:    1403698    Delete blocks:        0
Recorddata:     317235748    Deleted data:         0
Lost space:             0    Linkdata:             0

User time 1639.63, System time 251.61
Maximum resident set size 0, Integral resident set size 0
Non physical pagefaults 0, Physical pagefaults 10580, Swaps 0
Blocks in 4 out 0, Messages in 0 out 0, Signals 0
Voluntary context switches 10604, Involuntary context switches 122798

Here are the sizes of the data and index files for the table used in the preceding examples:

-rw-rw-r--   1 monty    tcx     317235748 Jan 12 17:30 company.MYD
-rw-rw-r--   1 davida   tcx      96482304 Jan 12 18:35 company.MYM

Explanations for the types of information myisamchk produces are given below. The ``keyfile'' is the index file. ``Record'' and ``row'' are synonymous.

ISAM file
Name of the ISAM (index) file.
Isam-version
Version of ISAM format. Currently always 2.
Creation time
When the data file was created.
Recover time
When the index/data file was last reconstructed.
Data records
How many records are in the table.
Deleted blocks
How many deleted blocks still have reserved space. You can optimize your table to minimize this space. See section 13.4.3 Table optimization.
Datafile: Parts
For dynamic record format, this indicates how many data blocks there are. For an optimized table without fragmented records, this is the same as Data records.
Deleted data
How many bytes of non-reclaimed deleted data there are. You can optimize your table to minimize this space. See section 13.4.3 Table optimization.
Datafile pointer
The size of the data file pointer, in bytes. It is usually 2, 3, 4 or 5 bytes. Most tables manage with 2 bytes, but this cannot be controlled from MySQL yet. For fixed tables, this is a record address. For dynamic tables, this is a byte address.
Keyfile pointer
The size of the index file pointer, in bytes. It is usually 1, 2 or 3 bytes. Most tables manage with 2 bytes, but this is calculated automatically by MySQL. It is always a block address.
Max datafile length
How long the table's data file (.MYD file) can become, in bytes.
Max keyfile length
How long the table's key file (.MYI file) can become, in bytes.
Recordlength
How much space each record takes, in bytes.
Record format
The format used to store table rows. The examples shown above use Fixed length. Other possible values are Compressed and Packed.
table description
A list of all keys in the table. For each key, some low-level information is presented:
Key
This key's number.
Start
Where in the record this index part starts.
Len
How long this index part is. For packed numbers, this should always be the full length of the column. For strings, it may be shorter than the full length of the indexed column, because you can index a prefix of a string column.
Index
unique or multip. (multiple). Indicates whether or not one value can exist multiple times in this index.
Type
What data-type this index part has. This is an ISAM data-type with the options packed, stripped or empty.
Root
Address of the root index block.
Blocksize
The size of each index block. By default this is 1024, but the value may be changed at compile time.
Rec/key
This is a statistical value used by the optimizer. It tells how many records there are per value for this key. A unique key always has a value of 1. This may be updated after a table is loaded (or greatly changed) with myisamchk -a. If this is not updated at all, a default value of 30 is given.
In the first example above, the 9th key is a multi-part key with two parts.
Keyblocks used
What percentage of the keyblocks are used. Since the table used in the examples had just been reorganized with myisamchk, the values are very high (very near the theoretical maximum).
Packed
MySQL tries to pack keys with a common suffix. This can only be used for CHAR/VARCHAR/DECIMAL keys. For long strings like names, this can significantly reduce the space used. In the third example above, the 4th key is 10 characters long and a 60% reduction in space is achieved.
Max levels
How deep the B-tree for this key is. Large tables with long keys get high values.
Records
How many rows are in the table.
M.recordlength
The average record length. For tables with fixed-length records, this is the exact record length.
Packed
MySQL strips spaces from the end of strings. The Packed value indicates the percentage savings achieved by doing this.
Recordspace used
What percentage of the data file is used.
Empty space
What percentage of the data file is unused.
Blocks/Record
Average number of blocks per record (i.e., how many links a fragmented record is composed of). This is always 1 for fixed-format tables. This value should stay as close to 1.0 as possible. If it gets too big, you can reorganize the table with myisamchk. See section 13.4.3 Table optimization.
Recordblocks
How many blocks (links) are used. For fixed format, this is the same as the number of records.
Deleteblocks
How many blocks (links) are deleted.
Recorddata
How many bytes in the data file are used.
Deleted data
How many bytes in the data file are deleted (unused).
Lost space
If a record is updated to a shorter length, some space is lost. This is the sum of all such losses, in bytes.
Linkdata
When the dynamic table format is used, record fragments are linked with pointers (4 to 7 bytes each). Linkdata is the sum of the amount of storage used by all such pointers.

If a table has been compressed with myisampack, myisamchk -d prints additional information about each table column. See section 12.5 The MySQL compressed read-only table generator, for an example of this information and a description of what it means.

13.4 Using myisamchk for crash recovery

The file format that MySQL uses to store data has been extensively tested, but there are always external circumstances that may cause database tables to become corrupted:

  • The mysqld process being killed in the middle of a write
  • Unexpected shutdown of the computer (for example, if the computer is turned off)
  • A hardware error

This chapter describes how to check for and deal with data corruption in MySQL databases. If your tables get corrupted a lot you should try to find the reason for this! See section G.1 Debugging a MySQL server.

When performing crash recovery, it is important to understand that each table tbl_name in a database corresponds to three files in the database directory:

File Purpose
`tbl_name.frm' Table definition (form) file
`tbl_name.MYD' Data file
`tbl_name.MYI' Index file

Each of these three file types is subject to corruption in various ways, but problems occur most often in data files and index files.

myisamchk works by creating a copy of the `.MYD' (data) file row by row. It ends the repair stage by removing the old `.MYD' file and renaming the new file to the original file name. If you use --quick, myisamchk does not create a temporary `.MYD' file, but instead assumes that the `.MYD' file is correct and only generates a new index file without touching the `.MYD' file. This is safe, because myisamchk automatically detects if the `.MYD' file is corrupt and aborts the repair in this case. You can also give two --quick options to myisamchk. In this case, myisamchk does not abort on some errors (like duplicate key) but instead tries to resolve them by modifying the `.MYD' file. Normally the use of two --quick options is useful only if you have too little free disk space to perform a normal repair. In this case you should at least make a backup before running myisamchk.

13.4.1 How to check tables for errors

To check a table, use the following commands:

myisamchk tbl_name
This finds 99.99% of all errors. What it can't find is corruption that involves ONLY the data file (which is very unusual). If you want to check a table, you should normally run myisamchk without options or with either the -s or --silent option.
myisamchk -e tbl_name
This does a complete and thorough check of all data (-e means ``extended check''). It does a check-read of every key for each row to verify that they indeed point to the correct row. This may take a LONG time on a big table with many keys. myisamchk will normally stop after the first error it finds. If you want to obtain more information, you can add the --verbose (-v) option. This causes myisamchk to keep going, up through a maximum of 20 errors. In normal usage, a simple myisamchk (with no arguments other than the table name) is sufficient.
myisamchk -e -i tbl_name
Like the previous command, but the -i option tells myisamchk to print some informational statistics, too.

13.4.2 How to repair tables

The symptoms of a corrupted table are usually that queries abort unexpectedly and that you observe errors such as these:

  • `tbl_name.frm' is locked against change
  • Can't find file `tbl_name.MYI' (Errcode: ###)
  • Got error ### from table handler (Error 135 is an exception in this case)
  • Unexpected end of file
  • Record file is crashed

In these cases, you must repair your tables. myisamchk can usually detect and fix most things that go wrong.

The repair process involves up to four stages, described below. Before you begin, you should cd to the database directory and check the permissions of the table files. Make sure they are readable by the Unix user that mysqld runs as (and to you, since you need to access the files you are checking). If it turns out you need to modify files, they must also be writable by you.

Stage 1: Checking your tables

Run myisamchk *.MYI or (myisamchk -e *.MYI if you have more time). Use the -s (silent) option to suppress unnecessary information.

You have to repair only those tables for which myisamchk announces an error. For such tables, proceed to Stage 2.

If you get weird errors when checking (such as out of memory errors), or if myisamchk crashes, go to Stage 3.

Stage 2: Easy safe repair

First, try myisamchk -r -q tbl_name (-r -q means ``quick recovery mode''). This will attempt to repair the index file without touching the data file. If the data file contains everything that it should and the delete links point at the correct locations within the data file, this should work and the table is fixed. Start repairing the next table. Otherwise, use the following procedure:

  1. Make a backup of the data file before continuing.
  2. Use myisamchk -r tbl_name (-r means ``recovery mode''). This will remove incorrect records and deleted records from the data file and reconstruct the index file.
  3. If the preceding step fails, use myisamchk --safe-recover tbl_name. Safe recovery mode uses an old recovery method that handles a few cases that regular recovery mode doesn't (but is slower).

If you get weird errors when repairing (such as out of memory errors), or if myisamchk crashes, go to Stage 3.

Stage 3: Difficult repair

You should only reach this stage if the first 16K block in the index file is destroyed or contains incorrect information, or if the index file is missing. In this case, it's necessary to create a new index file. Do so as follows:

  1. Move the data file to some safe place.
  2. Use the table description file to create new (empty) data and index files:
    shell> mysql db_name
    mysql> DELETE FROM tbl_name;
    mysql> quit
    
  3. Copy the old data file back onto the newly created data file. (Don't just move the old file back onto the new file; you want to retain a copy in case something goes wrong.)

Go back to Stage 2. myisamchk -r -q should work now. (This shouldn't be an endless loop).

Stage 4: Very difficult repair

You should reach this stage only if the description file has also crashed. That should never happen, because the description file isn't changed after the table is created.

  1. Restore the description file from a backup and go back to Stage 3. You can also restore the index file and go back to Stage 2. In the latter case, you should start with myisamchk -r.
  2. If you don't have a backup but know exactly how the table was created, create a copy of the table in another database. Remove the new data file, then move the description and index files from the other database to your crashed database. This gives you new description and index files, but leaves the data file alone. Go back to Stage 2 and attempt to reconstruct the index file.

13.4.3 Table optimization

To coalesce fragmented records and eliminate wasted space resulting from deleting or updating records, run myisamchk in recovery mode:

shell> myisamchk -r tbl_name

You can optimize a table in the same way using the SQL OPTIMIZE TABLE statement. OPTIMIZE TABLE is easier, but myisamchk is faster. There is also no possibility of unwanted interaction between a utility and the server, because the server does all the work when you use OPTIMIZE TABLE.

myisamchk also has a number of other options you can use to improve the performance of a table:

-S, --sort-index
-R index_num, --sort-records=index_num
-a, --analyze

For a full description of the option see See section 13.1.1 myisamchk invocation syntax.

13.5 Log file maintenance

When using MySQL with log files, you will from time to time want to remove/backup old log files and tell MySQL to start logging on new files. See section 9.2 The update log.

One a Linux (Redhat) installation, you can use the mysql-log-rotate script for this. If you installed MySQL from an RPM distribution, the script should have been installed automatically.

On other systems you must install a short script yourself that you start from cron to handle log files.

You can force MySQL to start using new log files by using mysqladmin flush-logs or by using the SQL command FLUSH LOGS. If you are using MySQL 3.21 you must use mysqladmin refresh.

The above command does the following:

  • If standard logging (--log) is used, closes and reopens the log file. (`mysql.log' as default).
  • If update logging (--log-update) is used, closes the update log and opens a new log file with a higher sequence number.

If you are using only an update log, you only have to flush the logs and then move away the old update log files to a backup. If you are using the normal logging, you can do something like:

shell> cd mysql-data-directory
shell> mv mysql.log mysql.old
shell> mysqladmin flush-tables

and then take a backup and remove `mysql.old'.


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