Базы данныхИнтернетКомпьютерыОперационные системыПрограммированиеСетиСвязьРазное
Поиск по сайту:
Подпишись на рассылку:

Назад в раздел

Frequently Asked Questions - Applet Security

Frequently Asked Questions - Applet Security The goal for JDK 1.0 is to enable browsers to run untrusted applets in a trusted environment. The approach is to be conservative at first, and to add functionality when it can be added securely. The intent is to prevent applets from inspecting or changing files on the client file system. Also, the intent is to prevent applets from using network connections to circumvent file protections or people's expectations of privacy.

A goal for future releases is to enable loading and authentication of signed classes. This enables browsers to run trusted applets in a trusted environment. That will not make obselete the need to run untrusted applets in a secure way. We are also exploring ways to expand the functionality of unauthenticated applets, without compromising security.

Applets What are applets prevented from doing? Can applets read or write files? How do I let an applet read a file? How do I let an applet write a file? What system properties can be read by applets, and how? How do I hide system properties that applets are allowed to read by default? How can I allow applets to read system properties that they aren't allowed to read by default? How can an applet open a network connection to a computer on the internet? How can an applet open a network connection to its originating host? How can an applet maintain persistent state? Can an applet start another program running on the client? What features of the Java language help people build secure applets? What is the difference between applets loaded over the net, and applets loaded via the file system? What's the applet class loader, and what does it buy me? What's the applet security manager, and what does it buy me? Is there a summary of applet capabilities? If other languages are compiled to Java bytecodes, how does that affect the applet security model?
Examples Tiny applet examples that demonstrate the security features of your web browser.
Glossary Terms used in this FAQ. Applets What are applets prevented from doing?

In general, applets loaded over the net are prevented from reading and writing files on the client file system, and from making network connections except to the originating host.

In addition, applets loaded over the net are prevented from starting other programs on the client. Applets loaded over the net are also not allowed to load libraries, or to define native method calls. If an applet could define native method calls, that would give the applet direct access to the underlying computer.

There are other specific capabilities denied to applets loaded over the net, but most of the applet security policy is described by those two paragraphs above. Read on for the gory details.

Can applets read or write files?

In Netscape Navigator 2.0, applets cannot read or write files at all.

Sun's JDK 1.0 appletviewer allows applets to read files that reside in directories on the access control lists.

If the file is not on the client's access control list, then applets cannot access the file in any way. Specifically, applets cannot check for the existence of the file read the file write the file rename the file create a directory on the client file system list the files in this file (as if it were a directory) check the file's type check the timestamp when the file was last modified check the file's size

How do I let an applet read a file?

Applets loaded into Netscape Navigator 2.0 can't read files.

Sun's appletviewer allows applets to read files that are named on the access control list for reading. The access control list for reading is null by default (in JDK 1.0beta2 and later.) You can allow applets to read directories or files by naming them in the acl.read property in your ~/.hotjava/properties file.

Note: The "~" (tilde) symbol is used on UNIX systems to refer to your home directory. If you install a web browser on your F: drive on your PC, and create a top-level directory named .hotjava, then your properties file is found in F:.hotjavaproperties.

For example, to allow any files in the directory home/mrm to be read by applets loaded into the appletviewer, add this line to your ~/.hotjava/properties file. acl.read=/home/me You can specify one file to be read: acl.read=/home/me/somedir/somefile Use ":" to separate entries: acl.read=/home/foo:/home/me/somedir/somefile Allowing an applet to read a directory means that it can read all the files in that directory, including any files in any subdirectories that might be hanging off that directory.

How do I let an applet write a file?

Applets loaded into Netscape Navigator 2.0 can't write files.

Sun's appletviewer allows applets to write files that are named on the access control list for writing. The access control list for writing is empty by default.

You can allow applets to write to your /tmp directory by setting the acl.write property in your ~/.hotjava/properties file: acl.write=/tmp You can allow applets to write to a particular file by naming it explicitly: acl.write=/home/me/somedir/somefile Use : to separate entries: acl.write=/tmp:/home/me/somedir/somefile

Bear in mind that if you open up your file system for writing by applets, there is no way to limit the amount of disk space an applet might use.

What system properties can be read by applets, and how?

In both Netscape Navigator 2.0 and the appletviewer, applets can read these system properties by invoking System.getProperty(String key): key meaning ____________ ______________________________ java.version Java version number java.vendor Java vendor-specific string java.vendor.url Java vendor URL java.class.version Java class version number os.name Operating system name os.arch Operating system architecture file.separator File separator (eg, "/") path.separator Path separator (eg, ":") line.separator Line separator Applets are prevented from reading these system properties: key meaning ____________ _____________________________ java.home Java installation directory java.class.path Java classpath user.name User account name user.home User home directory user.dir User's current working directory To read a system property from within an applet, simply invoke System.getProperty(key) on the property you are interested in.

For example, String s = System.getProperty("os.name"); How do I hide system properties that applets are allowed to read by default?

There's no way to hide the above ten system properties from applets loaded into Netscape Navigator 2.0. The reason is that Netscape Navigator 2.0 doesn't read any files, as a security precaution, including the ~/.hotjava/properties file.

From the appletviewer, you can prevent applets from finding out anything about your system by redefining the property in your ~/.hotjava/properties file. For example, to hide the name of the operating system that you are using, add this line to your ~/.hotjava/properties file: os.name=null How can I allow applets to read system properties that they aren't allowed to read by default?

There's no way to allow an applet loaded into Netscape Navigator 2.0 to read system properties that they aren't allowed to read by default.

To allow applets loaded into the appletviewer to read the property named by key, add the property key.applet=true to your ~/.hotjava/property file. For example, to allow applets to record your user name, add this line to your ~/.hotjava/properties file: user.name.applet=true How can an applet open a network connection to a computer on the internet?

Applets are not allowed to open network connections to any computer, except for the host that provided the .class files. This is either the host where the html page came from, or the host specified in the codebase parameter in the applet tag, with codebase taking precendence.

For example, if you try to do this from an applet that did not originate from the machine foo.com, it will fail with a security exception: Socket s = new Socket("foo.com", 25, true); How can an applet open a network connection to its originating host?

Be sure to name the originating host exactly as it was specified when the applet was loaded into the browser.

That is, if you load an HTML page using the URL http://foo.state.edu/~me/appletPage.html then your applet will be able to connect to its host only by using the name foo.state.edu. Using the IP address for foo.state.edu won't work, and using a "shorthand" form of the host name, like foo.state instead of foo.state.edu, won't work.

How can an applet maintain persistent state?

There is no explicit support in the JDK 1.0 applet API for persistent state on the client side. However, an applet can maintain its own persistent state on the server side. That is, it can create files on the server side and read files from the server side.

Interesting examples are CUPPA, Chat Up Plenty O' People applet, by Paul Burchard Scribble Forum, a shared scribble pad, by Robert O'Callahan

Although the CUPPA page says that its multiuser chat room shouldn't be allowed by the applet security policy, actually, it's fine - there's no violation of the security policy here.

Can an applet start another program on the client?

No, applets loaded over the net are not allowed to start programs on the client. That is, an applet that you visit can't start some rogue process on your PC. In UNIX terminology, applets are not allowed to exec or fork processes. In particular, this means that applets can't invoke some program to list the contents of your file system, and it means that applets can't invoke System.exit() in an attempt to kill your web browser. Applets are also not allowed to manipulate threads outside the applet's own thread group.

What features of the Java language help people build secure applets?

Java programs do not use pointers explicitly. Objects are accessed by getting a handle to the object. Effectively, this is like getting a pointer to an object, but Java does not allow the equivalent of pointer arithmetic on object handles. Object handles cannot be modified in any way by the Java applet or application.

C and C++ programmers are used to manipulating pointers to implement strings and to implement arrays. Java has high-level support for both strings and arrays, so programmers don't need to resort to pointer arithmetic in order to use those data structures.

Arrays are bounds-checked at runtime. Using a negative index causes a runtime exception, and using an index that is larger than the size of the array causes a runtime exception. Once an array object is created, its length never changes.

Strings in Java are immutable. A string is zero or more characters enclosed in double quotes, and it's an instance of the String class. Using immutable strings can help prevent common runtime errors that could be exploited by hostile applets.

The Java compiler checks that all type casts are legal. Java is a strongly typed language, unlike C or C++, and objects cannot be cast to a subclass without an explicit runtime check.

The final modifier can be used when initializing a variable, to prevent runtime modification of that variable. The compiler catches attempts to modify final variables.

Before a method is invoked on an object, the compiler checks that the object is the correct type for that method. For example, invoking t.currentThread() when t is not a Thread object causes a compile time error.

Java provides four access modifiers for methods and variables defined within classes and makes sure that these access barriers are not violated. public: a public method is accessible anywhere the class name is accessible protected: a protected method is accessible by a child of a class as long as it is trying to access fields in a similarly typed class. For example, class Parent { protected int x; } class Child extends Parent { ... } The class Child can access the field "x" only on objects that are of type Child (or a subset of Child.)

private: a private method is accessible only within its defining class default: if no modifier is specified, then by default, a method is accessible only within its defining package

For example, programmers can choose to implement sensitive functions as private methods. The compiler and the runtime checks ensure that no objects outside the class can invoke the private methods.

What is the difference between applets loaded over the net and applets loaded via the file system?

There are two different ways that applets are loaded by a Java system. The way an applet enters the system affects what it is allowed to do.

If an applet is loaded over the net, then it is loaded by the applet class loader, and is subject to the restrictions enforced by the applet security manager.

If an applet resides on the client's local disk, and in a directory that is on the client's CLASSPATH, then it is loaded by the file system loader. The most important differences are applets loaded via the file system are allowed to read and write files applets loaded via the file system are allowed to load libraries on the client applets loaded via the file system are allowed to exec processes applets loaded via the file system are allowed to exit the virtual machine applets loaded via the file system are not passed through the byte code verifier

For these reasons, Netscape Navigator 2.0 does not load applets via file: URLs.

This means that if you specify the URL in the textfield at the top of Netscape Navigator like so: Location: file:/home/me/public_html/something.html and the file something.html contains an applet, Netscape Navigator 2.0 won't load it. You need to specify the URL using the http protocol, like so: Location: http://someserver/~me/something.html

What's the applet class loader, and what does it buy me?

Applets loaded over the net are loaded by the applet class loader. For example, the appletviewer's applet class loader is implemented by the class sun.applet.AppletClassLoader.

The class loader enforces the Java name space hierarchy. The class loader guarantees that a unique namespace exists for classes that come from the local file system, and that a unique namespace exists for each network source. When a browser loads an applet over the net, that applet's classes are placed in a private namespace associated with the applet's origin. Thus, applets loaded from different network sources are partitioned from each other.

Also, classes loaded by the class loader are passed through the verifier. The verifier checks that the class file conforms to the Java language specification - it doesn't assume that the class file was produced by a "friendly" or "trusted" compiler. On the contrary, it checks the class file for purposeful violations of the language type rules and name space restrictions. The verifier ensures that There are no stack overflows or underflows. All register accesses and stores are valid. The parameters to all bytecode instructions are correct. There is no illegal data conversion.

The verifier accomplishes that by doing a data-flow analysis of the bytecode instruction stream, along with checking the class file format, object signatures, and special analysis of finally clauses that are used for Java exception handling.

Details on the verifier's design and implementation were presented in a paper by Frank Yellin at the December 1995 WWW conference in Boston.

A web browser uses only one class loader, which is established at start-up. Thereafter, the system class loader cannot be extended, overloaded, overridden or replaced. Applets cannot create or reference their own class loader.

What's the applet security manager, and what does it buy me?

The applet security manager is the Java mechanism for enforcing the applet restrictions described above. The appletviewer's applet security manager is implemented by sun.applet.AppletSecurity.

A browser may only have one security manager. The security manager is established at startup, and it cannot thereafter be replaced, overloaded, overridden, or extended. Applets cannot create or reference their own security manager.

Is there a summary of applet capabilities?

The following table is not an exhaustive list of applet capabilities. It's meant to answer the questions we hear most often about what applets can and cannot do.

Key: NN: Netscape Navigator 2.0beta, loading applets over the Net NL: Netscape Navigator 2.0beta, loading applets from the Local file system AN: Appletviewer, JDK beta, loading applets over the Net AL: Appletviewer, JDK beta, loading applets from the Local file system JS: Java Standalone applications Stricter ------------------------> Less strict NN NL AN AL JS read file in /home/me, no no no yes yes acl.read=null read file in /home/me, no no yes yes yes acl.read=/home/me write file in /tmp, no no no yes yes acl.write=null write file in /tmp, no no yes yes yes acl.write=/tmp get file info, no no no yes yes acl.read=null acl.write=null get file info, no no yes yes yes acl.read=/home/me acl.write=/tmp delete file, no no no no yes using File.delete() delete file, no no no yes yes using exec /usr/bin/rm read the user.name no yes no yes yes property connect to port no yes no yes yes on client connect to port no yes no yes yes on 3rd host load library no yes no yes yes exit(-1) no no no yes yes create a popup no yes no yes yes window without a warning

If other languages are compiled to Java bytecodes, how does that affect the applet security model?

The verifier is independent of Sun's reference implementation of the Java compiler and the high-level specification of the Java language. It verifies bytecodes generated by other Java compilers. It also verifies bytecodes generated by compiling other languages into the bytecode format. Bytecodes imported over the net that pass the verifier can be trusted to run on the Java virtual machine. In order to pass the verifier, bytecodes have to conform to the strict typing, the object signatures, the class file format, and the predictability of the runtime stack that are all defined by the Java language implementation. Examples None of these examples are malicious - the one line descriptions can be taken at face value. You can look at the source code for each applet, before visiting the page that has that applet inside. (The first link in each example takes you to the source code, and the second link takes you to an html page that includes the executable content for the example.)

Files: Can this applet read files on your system? Can this applet obtain information about files on your system? Can this applet write a file on your system? Can this applet use File.delete() to delete the file named /tmp/foo? Can this applet use the unix command /bin/rm to delete the file named /tmp/foo? System Properties: Can this applet read the ten system properties that applets are allowed to read by default? Can this applet read hidden properties like user.name or user.home? Can this applet replace your browser's property file? Sockets: Can this applet connect to port 25 on www.netscape.com? Can this applet send data to www.sun.com? Processes: Can this applet kill your browser? Can this applet run some program on your computer? Libraries and name spaces: Can this applet load a library on your computer? Can this applet create its own class loader? Can this applet create a class of its own in the java.net namespace? Windows: What does a window created by an applet look like? Glossary of terms used in this FAQ

Applet A Java program that is run from inside a web browser. The html page loaded into the web browser contains an <applet> tag, which tells the browser where to find the Java .class files. For example,

appletviewer http://foo.com/~jo/coolApplet.html

Standalone Java application A Java program that is run by invoking the java interpreter. For example,

java coolApplication

Server The computer that hosts the web page that contains an applet. The .class files that make up the applet, and the .html files that reference the applet, reside on the server. When someone on the internet connects to a web page that contains an applet, the server delivers the .class files over the internet to the client that made the request.

The server is also known as the originating host.

Client The computer that displays the web page that contains an applet.

The terms server and client are sometimes used to refer to computers, and are sometimes used to refer to computer programs. For example, www.sun.com is a server, and the httpd process running on www.sun.com is its server process. My computer at home is a client, and the web browser running on my computer at home acts as the client process. Copyright © 1995 Sun Microsystems, Inc., 2550 Garcia Ave., Mtn. View, CA 94043-1100 USA. All rights reserved. For Java technical support, see the newsgroup comp.lang.java or send mail to java@java.sun.com. For problems with this web site, send mail to webmaster@java.sun.com.


  • Главная
  • Новости
  • Новинки
  • Скрипты
  • Форум
  • Ссылки
  • О сайте




  • Emanual.ru – это сайт, посвящённый всем значимым событиям в IT-индустрии: новейшие разработки, уникальные методы и горячие новости! Тонны информации, полезной как для обычных пользователей, так и для самых продвинутых программистов! Интересные обсуждения на актуальные темы и огромная аудитория, которая может быть интересна широкому кругу рекламодателей. У нас вы узнаете всё о компьютерах, базах данных, операционных системах, сетях, инфраструктурах, связях и программированию на популярных языках!
     Copyright © 2001-2020
    Реклама на сайте